0.0. Scope, purpose and use

0.0.1. Scope Primary emphasis : cataloguing sound recordings

Based on ISBD (NBM) 0.0.1
Based on FIAF 0.1.1

The IASA Cataloguing Rules specify requirements for the description and identification of sound recordings and related audiovisual media, assign an order to the elements of the description and specify a system of punctuation for that description. They are designed for use by sound and audiovisual archives as a guide in the preparation of cataloguing records and as a standard for the exchange of bibliographic information concerning sound and related audiovisual materials. Their provisions relate to the bibliographic records for sound and audiovisual archives in general, and may require elaboration in more specialised archives whose holdings are exclusively of a single format or type, e.g. radio programmes, advertisements, sound effects, wildlife recordings, ethnographic recordings, music.

Here the term audiovisual encompasses sound recordings, moving and still images.

The IASA Cataloguing Rules’ primary emphasis is on sound recordings, in particular:  

  • audio formats (published, unpublished and broadcast);
  • moving image formats where these could be considered to be a natural extension of audio formats (e.g. music videos, musical performances on laser disc ), or related to audio (e.g. simultaneous FM radio and television broadcasts); and
  • electronic resources (e.g. interactive CD-ROMs, audio content in jukeboxes and mass storage systems).

Special emphasis is given to information that is appropriate to include for different types of content on sound recordings and related audiovisual materials as identified above. Options and alternatives are presented to assist archives and libraries in deciding on the most suitable approach to cataloguing their collections, in order to meet the requirements of public service and archival imperatives.

The IASA Cataloguing Rules are designed to harmonise with the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. - 2nd ed., and the International Standard bibliographic description (Non-Book Materials) and to be able to be used in MARC or other cataloguing systems.

They address cataloguing issues concerning sound recordings and their natural extensions into other audiovisual media in more depth than AACR2. Briefly, the additional issues are cataloguing of unpublished and broadcast recordings, extra emphasis on copyright (Area 4) and greater emphasis on analytic and multilevel description (Introduction and Chapter 9). Additionally a chapter on item /copy level information (Chapter 10) is included, while appendices respectively cover the concepts of fonds and collection level cataloguing and terms and definitions for common conditions relating to sound recordings.

This work therefore does not seek to duplicate existing cataloguing rules and guidelines, but is intended to be compatible with and complement them, and to focus freshly on a variety of issues of particular relevance to sound and audiovisual archives.

Still images, paper based media, and remote access electronic resources as complete systems are not addressed in these rules. Cataloguing of moving and still images

The FIAF Cataloguing Rules for Film archives and Betz, Elizabeth, Graphic Materials: Rules for Describing Original Items in Historical Collections have already been published, and to a considerable extent already address the cataloguing of moving and still images respectively. These should be referred to in the first instance for cataloguing of moving and still images.

Clearly, where a sound recording is contained in a moving image format , or alternatively a recorded sound format is an integral part of a moving image work, it will be necessary to discern which are the appropriate rules to apply for cataloguing the item . For some discussion on this see Appropriate cataloguing treatment of sound recordings and related audiovisual items in the Introduction to these rules. Cataloguing of electronic resources

Furthermore, the Guidelines for bibliographic description of Interactive Multimedia and ISBD (ER): International Standard bibliographic description for Electronic Resources have been published and should be referred to for detailed guidance on cataloguing electronic resources. In particular, ISBD (ER) should be consulted for cataloguing of remote access systems as a whole. Fonds and collection level cataloguing

These rules also cover the concept of fonds and collection level cataloguing to the extent that it may apply to cataloguing of sound recordings and related audiovisual archives and collections. ISAD(G) : General International Standard Archival Description; Bureau of Canadian Archivists, Rules for Archival Description; and Hensen, Stephen L. (comp.), archives, Personal Papers and Manuscripts: A Cataloguing Manual for Archival Repositories, Historical Societies and Manuscript Libraries should be referred to for in-depth guidance on cataloguing a fonds or collection, and its series and files. Analytic description

Analytic description is addressed in these rules. It is an especially important concept for cataloguing sound recordings. This is because individual sound recordings are usually grouped together on a particular sound carrier, and over time, the same sound recordings may be recombined in variant groupings on new carriers, or in remote access electronic resources available on the Internet , in a mass storage system or in a jukebox.

Analytic description permits a single analytic record for the individual sound recording to be linked to the catalogue record(s) for one or more host item (s). Multilevel description

Multilevel description is also addressed in these rules. Multilevel description has traditionally been used in archives and cataloguing agencies which apply the technique of fonds and collection level cataloguing. Depending on the information retrieval requirements and cataloguing policies and resources of the particular archive or cataloguing agency concerned, multilevel description may or may not extend to the level of the individual recording. Descriptive cataloguing and choice of access points

Developed from FIAF 0.1.3, para 2

These rules address bibliographic description for the purpose of identification of sound and audiovisual materials in a catalogue.

These rules do not address choice of access points, nor the development of authority files.

Subject access to materials is not addressed here, as it is understood that most countries would have their own subject thesaurus.

Rules for standardising personal and corporate name headings and for choosing names as access points are not addressed here. For guidance in establishing name access points and name authority records, archives should refer to the national or multinational codes, and to the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) publications, such as Form and Structure of Corporate Headings (for establishing name headings), and to the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed., and Library of Congress Cataloging Service Bulletins (for establishing name headings and choosing names as access points).

Name information appearing on record labels and accompanying documentation and packaging is proven to vary considerably for the same name from source to source. It is therefore recommended that appropriate and scholarly reference works (e.g. specialised reference works and encyclopaedias, discographies, bio-discographies, etc.) and established name authority files be consulted to confirm correct spelling and data elements for name headings, as well as to assist with preparing useful see and see also references.

0.0 2. Purpose

Based on ISBD (NBM) 0.1.2

The primary purpose of The IASA Cataloguing Rules is to establish a norm in audiovisual archives for describing sound recordings conformant with other schemes for bibliographic description. The intention behind this primary purpose is to ensure that the cataloguing of sound recordings can be easily and efficiently incorporated into mainstream cataloguing activity.

The purpose of The IASA Cataloguing Rules, therefore supports that outlined in ISBD (NBM), 2nd ed.:

"to (A) make records from different sources interchangeable, so that the records produced in one country can be easily accepted in the library catalogues or other bibliographic lists of another country; (B) assist in the interpretation of records across language barriers so that records produced for users in one language can be interpreted by users of other languages; and (C) assist in the conversion of bibliographic records to machine-readable form."

FIAF 0.1.2, last para

For this reason every effort has been made to follow ISBD (NBM) wherever possible, particularly with regard to the prescribed order of descriptive elements and punctuation.

0.0.3. Use Framework

Based on FIAF 0.1.3

The rules are intended to provide a framework for the maximum amount of descriptive information required in a range of archival cataloguing activities within a great variety of national and local environments. The elements of description listed in Rule 0.B. are therefore grouped into two categories, mandatory (if applicable) and optional or alternative. The elements listed as mandatory are essential for the effective exchange of bibliographic information, while archives and cataloguing agencies are encouraged to include as many of the optional elements as the information retrieval requirements of the institution and its clients, and resources permit. Presentation of The IASA Cataloguing Rules and application of automation

The IASA Cataloguing Rules are primarily concerned with presentation of output rather than method of input, and so were written to be applied by sound and audiovisual archives regardless of the type, or even existence of, an automated system. Preliminary rules

Preliminary rules are given at the beginning of Areas 1-8, Chapter 9 and 10. These are to:

a) reconfirm the punctuation preceding or enclosing each element of the description in the area/chapter, where appropriate;

b) reconfirm sources for information to use in that area/chapter; and may also

c) establish any general parameters (e.g. in Area 7) on how the rules which follow are to be applied.

In the case of this third category, any parameters given as preliminary rules are not necessarily intended to serve in place of the more specific rules which follow. Citation of source materials throughout The IASA Cataloguing Rules Rules drawn from, or corresponding with, rules in other cataloguing standards or guidelines are sourced in The IASA Cataloguing Rules. For ease of use and comparison, an indication is given as to whether the rule is based on; developed, adapted, extended, extracted or extrapolated from the source or corresponding rules; or on rare occasions, is a variant rule.