6.3.11 Automated Robotics or Manual Retrieval  For small-scale operations it is possible to back up data from a single workstation onto a single data tape drive and manually load tapes for storage on traditional shelving, and even small scale networked systems will undertake manual backup of their storage (see also Chapter 7 Small Scale Approaches to Digital Storage Systems). The same guidelines for storage environments apply as for other magnetic tapes,though increased attention to minimising the presence of dust and other particulates and pollutants would be beneficial.For larger-scale operations,particularly in countries where labour costs are high, and capital equipment budgets are favourable, a degree of automation is normally desirable and more economical than purely manual systems. The degree of automation depends upon the scale and consistency of the task, type of access to the content, and the relative costs of the main resources.   Autoloaders and Robotic Tape Libraries: The next step from single drives is the small-scale auto¡loader, which usually has one drive (occasionally two), and a single row or carousel of data tapes which are fed in sequentially to support backup operations. One of the key differences between autoloaders, and large-scale robotic libraries is that the recorded tapes are not logged by the backup software in a central database which can then enable automated retrieval. The task of searching, retrieving and reloading individual files still falls to a human operator. All that autoloaders do, as the name implies, is to allow a series of tapes to be written or read sequentially to overcome the size limitations of individual data media, and to negate the requirement for a human operator’s presence to load the next tape in a long backup sequence.   By way of contrast, even the smallest robotic tape libraries are programmed to behave as a single, self -contained storage system. The location of individual files on different tapes is transparent to the user, and the library controller keeps track of addresses of files on each tape, and of the physical location of tapes within the library. If tapes are removed or reloaded, the robotic sub-system re-scans the tape slots as it initialises, to update its inventory with metadata from barcodes, rf tags, or memory chips in the tape housings.  Large tape libraries have some benefits when compared to the smaller tape libraries. They can be built to be redundant and distributed, i.e. downtime can be minimised and the read/write load can be balanced between several similar systems. Large tape library can also be used as a multi-purpose system; they can, for example, maintain a company’s normal IT backups as well as manage all archived video and audio.   Data tapes or cartridges used in a robotic system will have some system of barcoding, rf tags or other ID. These optical or electromagnetic recognition systems sometimes operate in conjunction with MIC for supplementing information about tape ID and content. Some formats have a global ID system for barcoding tapes so that a tape used in one robotic library can be recognised in another library system.   Backup and Migration Software and Schedules: Some confusion and misunderstanding exists both in IT circles, and in the wider community as to the purpose and operation of long-term data archives. There are two popular misconceptions regarding long term data archives. The first; that archiving is the process of moving infrequently used material from expensive, on-line networked disc storage, to less expensive,inaccessible offline shelving from whence it may never be retrieved and the other;that backup is a regular daily and weekly routine of making a copy of everything stored in the system.   With regard to the first misconception, the reality is that some of the most important and valuable material may not be used for months or years, but its survival must be guaranteed unequivocally. Likewise with the second, if suitable rules are established, vast amounts of material may not need to be replicated daily or weekly when only small percentages are updated. In practice, while a stringent regime of replicating data on different media in different locations is essential to minimise risks from technology failures and to ensure recovery from disasters, the particular characteristics of digital heritage material requires some procedures that differ from routine IT data management.   Conventional HSM (Hierarchical Storage Management) systems may be optimised for backing up everything on a regular basis, and moving out infrequently-used content to inaccessible locations, but the better systems can be configured to suit the business rules and practices in archives of different sizes with different levels of access. A medium-sized organisation may ingest 100 GB of audio data every week or 1TB of video. It is fairly straightforward to ensure that copies are made as soon as valuable material is ingested, and that frequently used material remains accessible.   Some of the primary tasks of storage management software are to optimise the use of resources and to manage devices in the hardware layer, while regulating traffic with minimal delays to users. HSM software offers a choice of conditions for migrating files from on-line disk to tape, such as older than a certain date, larger than a nominated size, located in particular sub-folders or when available disk space falls outside certain limits (high and low watermark).  Typically, where both high resolution files, as well as low resolution access copies are produced, the larger, high resolution files used for preservation and broadcast will be migrated to tape to free up space on the more expensive hard disk array. A balance is needed to maintain availability of material, and to optimise use of tape drives and media. If tapes are being accessed very frequently, a large number of mounts and unmounts, spooling and restore operations will degrade system performance. More sophisticated content management systems sometimes incorporate lower levels of storage management so that users are less aware of individual files and components that support the system.