Information Bulletin no. 42, July 2002

Welcome to Denmark in September

The printed invitation to attend the 2002 IASA Conference in Aarhus (September 16th 19th) has now been sent to all members. The invitation also includes the preliminary programme and registration form.

Please note that the deadline for registration is 1st September. You can mail or fax your registration. It is also possible to register via the conference website on

An important announcement about payment: many members have asked about the possibility of paying by credit card. Unfortunately, we are not able to provide this service, so please use bank transfer as specified in the invitation and on the website.

The preliminary programme presented in the invitation is now being elaborated. We will adapt the programme gradually on the website, so keep an eye on that.

We are looking forward so much to welcoming all of you!

Eva Fønss-Jørgensen, State and University Library, Aarhus, Denmark

New iasa website launched was launched early in June. There are a few refinements to be made but the structure and content are already well-settled and, as you can see from the number of new members below, helping the process of recruitment to our association.

If you spot any errors or wish to make an addition, please contact the IASA Editor.


Please note that the dates of the IASA Conference in Aarhus are as stated above, September 16th 19th. My apologies, especially to the organisers, for confusing everyone last April by printing incorrect dates in the Information Bulletin.

IASA Directory 2002. Please not that the email address for IASA member Grace Koch is

Ten new members this quarter

Tom A Adami, UN - ICTR, AICC Bldg, PO Box 6016, Arusha Tanzania
Tom Adami is Chief Archivist at the International Criminal
Tribunal for Rwanda which has a large audio-visual collection.

Maxwell Agyei Addo, International Centre for African Music & Dance, School of Performing Arts, University of Ghana, PO Box LG 19, Legon, Ghana
Maxwell Addo is an audiovisual archivist and is eager to get involved in IASA's emerging African branch.

Jill Cassidy, Queen Victoria Museum & Art Gallery, Wellington Street, Launceston, Tasmania TAS 7250
Jill ( runs an oral history archive in the Tasmanian state capital.

Shubha Chaudhuri, Archives and Research Centre for Ethnomusicology, New Delhi, India
Shubha Chaudhuri is the Director of the ARCE, which has developed since 1982 into a professional archive to support training and ethnomusicological research.

Département de l'Audiovisuel, Bibliothèque nationale de France, T3 N3 Quai François Mauriac
F-75706 Paris cedex 13
A long-time IASA Journal subscriber becomes a full institutional member. The Director is Isabelle Giannattasio, and you can find out about this major international collection at

Eva Fønss-Jørgensen. Aarhus, Denmark
As Director of the audiovisual archives at the Statsbiblioteket in Aarhus, a long-time IASA Institutional member, Eva Fønss-Jørgensen, soon to take over as IASA Secretary General, is now active also as an individual member.

Gramophone Records Museum And Research Centre Of Ghana, P.O. Box UC 35
University of Cape Coast Post Office, Cape Coast, Ghana

Our contact is Kwame Sarpong ( who describes his organisation as follows: "The Gramophone Records Museum and Research Centre of Ghana was established in 1994 as a non-profit organization. It has in its collection to date 18,000 Ghanaian Highlife Music Recordings from the beginning of the last century to the mid-1960s . These recordings are on 78-rpm shellac discs and represent the works of over 700 Ghanaian vintage recording artists. There are also 2,500 recordings on vinyl."

Institute for Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research, c/o Fonogramenheten
Box 135, SE-751 04 UPPSALA, Sweden
Our contact at the Institute, Lars Bleckert: "the Institute is the central Swedish governmental organisation within the field of spoken dialects and onomastics. The institute has archives/working groups in four different places in Sweden. Since 1936, the Institute has made some 15,000 hours of dialect recordings on various media."

Museum and Archive Project, The Government Public Relations Dept., 9 Soi Areesamphan, Rama VI, Phayathai, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.
Kannika Chivapakdee is establishing an AV archive at the Government Public Relations Department (PRD) which operates Radio Thailand and Channel 11 of Thailand Television under the name National Broadcasting Services of Thailand.Its museum and archive will serve as a local centre for knowledge about the history of early Thai broadcasting, audiovisual recordings and broadcasting technology.

Pakistan Television Corporation Ltd, Constitution Avenue, Post Box No. 1221 F-5/1, Agha Khan
Road, Islamabad, Pakistan
PTV operates 3 channels with a staff of around 5000 professional and non-professional staff. It transmits 115 hours daily and production time amounts to 23 hours daily.

Peter Copeland retires

Members of the IASA Technical Committee will want to join the Editor in wishing Peter Copeland, Conservation Manager at the British Library National Sound Archive (BLNSA) and regular contributor to IASA's technical debates, a happy retirement. Peter is expected to be available to BLNSA on a consultancy basis for some time yet so it's au revoir rather than farewell. Nevertheless his extraordinarily detailed knowledge of the history of sound recording and the technical specifications of all known audiovisual formats will be difficult to match. His successor in the post is Nigel Bewley.

Manufacturers and AV archivists meet in Paris

George Boston reports:

A Consultation between Manufacturers and Archivists on the Long Term Preservation of Audiovisual Recordings was held at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris on June 14th. The meeting discussed ways of improving co-operation between archivists and the makers of the current main carriers for audiovisual recordings - magnetic tape and recordable optical discs. This was the second Consultation that the IASA Technical Committee (IASA TC) has organised in c

o-operation with UNESCO. The Sub-Committee on Technology for the Memory of the World Programme (SCoT) also assisted with the arrangements.

IASA members present included Lars Gaustad (Chair of the IASA TC), Dietrich Schüller (former Chair of the IASA TC and Chair of SCoT), George Boston (IASA TC Secretary and SCoT Rapporteur), Jean-Marc Fontaine, Ian Gilmour and Albrecht Haefner.

Also present from archives were Denis Frambourt, representing FIAT/IFTA, and the members of SCoT - Lourdes Feria from Colima University, Mexico, Julian Bescos from Informática El Corte Ingles, Spain, Adolf Knoll of the Czech National Library and Jonas Palm from the Danish Royal Library.

The manufacturing companies represented included Verbatim, Quantegy, EMTEC, Fuji Magnetics, Waitec and Lyrec.

It was agreed that detailed talks should be held to arrange a system of early warning of defects in tapes. There was some nervousness about disclosing such information as it could affect the reputation of companies. These fears were eased when Joie Springer suggested that UNESCO could act as a clearing-house for the information.

The provision of an archival standard recordable CD was agreed to be necessary. The race for faster speed discs and the commercial pressure to reduce costs and, therefore, the price in the market place has led to problems with reliability of blank discs. It was said that a higher reliability disc can be supplied for about 25% extra cost. It would be slower than the 50X discs that are currently favoured and may require the co-operation of a drive manufacturer to produce burners able to run at slower speeds. These would not be new designs or specifications but resurrectiona of older standards that would be more reliable.

Verbatim are already marketing such a disc under the name Ultra Life Plus. It is possible that Mitsui are also marketing a CD blank of a higher reliability than normal but this was not confirmed at the meeting. The representative from Waitec said that, subject to demand, slower burners would not be a problem.

Prize for Oman Centre

The Oman Centre for Traditional Music, an IASA institutional member (and host to IASA's first Middle-East conference in 1997) has been awarded the coveted International Music Music Council / UNESCO music prize for 2002. The Centre was a co-winner with acclaimed Portuguese pianist Maria João Pires. Instigated by the International Music Council in 1975, the Prize rewards musicians and musical institutions whose work or activities have contributed to the enrichment and development of music and have served peace, understanding between people, international co-operation and other purposes proclaimed by the United Nations Charter and the UNESCO Act.

SEAPAVAA, 13th - 17th May 2002

IASA President, Crispin Jewitt, reports:

This was SEAPAVAA's 7th annual Conference and General Assembly, and I attended as IASA President for the 3rd consecutive year following the two associations' joint conference in Singapore in 2000. The conference theme was Mapping tomorrow: a reality check for archives and the venue was the Lane Xang Hotel, in Vientiane, the capital city of Laos.

Travelling from Bangkok via the provincial Thai towns of Udon Thani and Nong Khai, one was struck by the relatively quiet, and the relaxed pace of life in Vientiane. Although the regular, nightly torrential downpour, accompanied by thunder and lightning, posed the occasional problem in moving about, during the day the sun shone and the city was a pleasant place to walk. This is the capital of a poor and underdeveloped country, and although it seemed a pleasant environment by comparison with Bangkok, I have no doubt that the Laotians wouldn't mind a bit more noise and traffic as the consequence of some sustained economic development. The surprising number of European faces (and eating and drinking places catering for their preferences) indicated the significant presence of United Nations and other international aid agencies, and of course this part of the world is very much on the back-packers' itinerary. The Lao People's Democratic Republic combines a Leninist system of government with Buddhist religious observance and small-scale private enterprise. Our accommodation in the conference hotel was interesting. Physically, it reminded me of a large hotel I stayed in during a short trip to Leningrad in the 1970s, but the climate outside was warmer, and the people running the hotel were pleasant and friendly.

The conference followed the established pattern. Monday and Tuesday was for papers and presentations, Thursday and Friday for the General Assembly, with the week punctuated by an excursion on Wednesday. The conference theme was explored by a comprehensive set of presentations by speakers from archives from the various countries in the region expressing their visions and hopes for the future. There were some familiar aspirations regarding training for specialist professionals and modernised services, and also some timely reminders of the realities of building and maintaining audiovisual archives in a hostile natural environment, and in some cases an unsympathetic political environment, in others a recent experience of social conflict. I chaired a session looking at some current issues from the perspective of national AV archives, broadcasting archives, and specialist research archives, and had the opportunity in a later session to present IASA's policies on copyright and legal deposit. During the General Assembly I bade farewell to SEAPAVAA as IASA President, but said that that the imminent change of President should not alter the continuing supportive relationship between the two associations. Next year SEAPAVAA plan to meet in Brunei, and in 2004 in Hanoi, jointly with FIAF.

The excursion to the Nam Ngum dam and reservoir was notable for the cramped conditions inside the minibuses. The visitors from outside the region tended to be disadvantaged in this respect, but I found some compensation in the regular sight of small family groups of the most charming small brown cattle, often wandering freely across the road. Without exception they looked in perfect condition, which I attributed to living out of doors and enjoying a daily shower. My wife Mary, had meanwhile quite independently arranged for herself a day with the National Library's mobile van. This included a trip to a village to exchange storybooks for the children. The librarian read them stories and a picnic lunch was provided. Some people have all the luck!

Overall I found it a rewarding week with a nice group of people who I am honoured to regard as professional colleagues. I am now saving my pennies for Brunei.

World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)

Kurt Deggeller reports:

"The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) is organised by the United Nations and aims to establish a common vision of the information society. The first meetings of the WSIS will take place in December 2003 in Geneva and in 2005 in Tunis.

UNESCO, with its mandate to promote the free exchange of ideas and knowledge, has a key role in the preparation of WSIS. Stakeholder NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations), among them IASA, have been invited to contribute and formulate proposals on what, in their opinion, should appear in the Declaration of Principles and in the Plan of Action of WSIS. This year IASA participated at preparatory meetings in Paris and Geneva.

The participants of WSIS can be divided into three different groups: governments, NGOs and other representatives of the civil society and the private sector. During the preparatory meetings it became obvious that NGOs are not the most powerful group in that process and that within the NGO group the interests of IASA are again a very small minority. Hence we have not yet found the right channel to obtain a hearing.

What are the proposals we should bring to the WSIS? At present the discussions are dominated by access and digital technology. Preservation has, as far as I know, never been seriously mentioned and information in non-digital form seems to be treated as if it does not exist. Herein lie our main concerns. We should therefore try to raise the awareness of the three groups mentioned above about the following issues:

  • governments must bear the responsibility for creating and maintaining robust and independent information repositories;

  • NGOs working in the field of archives, libraries and museums must improve their knowledge of preservation issues relating to all kinds of materials and must bring obsolescence problems under control through sustained contact with manufacturers;

  • the private sector, namely the manufacturers of information systems, should be made aware of the preservation problem and participate actively in providing solutions for long-time storage at a reasonable price.

  • More information about WSIS can be found at

Heritage institutions in Hong Kong, Australia, and Singapore

IASA President, Crispin Jewitt, reports on his travels last October:

Last October I was fortunate in having the opportunity to travel to Australia to visit national cultural organisations in Canberra. I broke my journey with stopovers in Hong Kong and Singapore where I also visited archive institutions. This was very much a journey with a professional focus, so I thought I would share my experience with the readers of the Information Bulletin.

At the Hong Kong Film Archive, I was welcomed by Angela Tong, Acting Head of the Archive, and we were later joined by Edward Tse, Assistant Curator Conservation, whom I had met at IASA-SEAPAVAA 2000 in Singapore.

The Archive ( moved to purpose-built premises in Sai Wan Ho on Hong Kong Island in January 2001, having previously occupied inadequate split accommodation in Mongkok, in Kowloon. The multi-storey building includes a 150-seat screening theatre, collections storage areas with a variety of appropriate environmental conditions, conservation laboratory and office space, a research centre comprising a library and viewing booths, and public exhibition area.

Collecting policy reflects the basic aspiration to function as the legal deposit repository for the rich heritage of Hong Kong film production. As in the UK, the existing legal deposit arrangements do not cover film or recorded media so material is acquired by voluntary deposit, purchase, and (in the case of film originals) patient negotiation. Holdings include film, video, posters and stills, sound recordings, and books and periodicals for the Research Centre. The majority of original film holdings are positive prints, some negative originals are held but the Archive's experience is that producers are reluctant to part with these until they have become degraded through over-use or poor storage conditions. Local published production on VHS, Laser Disc, and currently VCD and DVD is acquired comprehensively. Film-related published phonograms are acquired: these holding include some 3,000 LPs. Relevant broadcast material is dubbed by RTHK on to audio cassette for the Archive. Material comes into the archive faster than current rates of processing permit, so although holdings are listed in the catalogue, film originals awaiting preservation treatment are not routinely available for viewing. I was asked for advice on preservation of their sound recordings, particularly the LPs and coarse-groove discs. We discussed strategies appropriate to these specific carriers and I agreed to follow up with more specific advice, in particular with information on transcription turntables, styli and pick-up arms, and on staff training in the area of transfer digitisation of these carriers.

The Research Centre provides public access to written sources of reference supporting the study of film and includes access to the Archive's on-line catalogue. As well as the normal resource discovery functions this also includes about 100 film clips and numerous still images, all accessible through the online catalogue interface. This facility includes seven viewing booths for personal study and a small group viewing space. The viewing theatre is extensively used by school parties and runs a programme of showings for community groups. At the time of my visit the public exhibition space had a multi-screen installation featuring experimental film work by local independent producers.

From Hong Kong I flew to Canberra, where my principal objective was to visit Ron Brent and colleagues at ScreenSound Australia, the National Screen and Sound Archive ( ScreenSound is a substantial organisation with a collecting remit covering film, video, and sound, and a full range of archival and service activities supported by some 200 staff. Established as a separate institution in 1984, it has recently completed a major building extension on two floors, which includes new studio facilities for audio work, a conference room and much needed office space. I spent an enjoyable three days learning about all aspects of ScreenSound audio operations, and had the honour of launching their lunchtime lecture series with a talk "Sound & audiovisual archives, the world-wide scene: yesterday, today, and tomorrow".

At the National Library of Australia I was met by Kevin Bradley, Head of Digital Preservation, who had been in London for the IASA conference a couple of weeks previously. The Library ( has active oral history and live music recording programmes, and is at an advanced stage of implementing digital collection management systems to support these collections, with metadata being automatically extracted from an Access database as CD-Rs are ingested into a server from a multi-disc magazine. The requirements are on a relatively small scale, but the technical solution seems elegant and well thought out. Other digitisation programmes looked at included maps, and a recently approved project to digitise holdings of out-of-copyright sheet music on the basis of local Australian interest (The Woy Woy Waltz, 1912, etc.). I also met David Toll, Acting Director General, and had coffee with Pamela Gatenby, Assistant Director General for Collections Management.

The Australian War Memorial ( is comparable with the UK's Imperial War Museum, including in its holdings rich collections of oral history and archival film material. It has a strong national role as the custodian and focus of the national memory of the historical events that established a strong sense of Australian nationhood, particularly the ANZAC landings at Gallipoli in 1915. I met Bill Fogerty, Head of Preservation, and George Imashev, Curator of Film and Sound, over lunch, after visiting the extensive galleries.

My visit to the National Museum of Australia was squeezed into the beginning of the day I had reserved for rest & recreation (which was to include a most enjoyable visit to the National Botanic Gardens). The National Museum ( opened to the public in its new building on ANZAC day, February 2001. A startling architectural design, with red and black the prominent colours, it is set on a peninsula next to the lake around which Canberra has been built. My guide was Darren Peacock, Manager of Technology Integration & Delivery. The content of the museum reflected a mixture of traditional static interpretative presentation with a variety of interactive and audiovisual experiences. The static displays in the First Australians gallery were excellent. There is also an extensive area for children (heavily interactive), and a limited access gallery/store where the rich holdings of aboriginal artefacts not currently selected for display can be seen, impressively housed, but with minimal labelling. The National Museum shares both a site and an architectural style with the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (, whose AV curator is IASA member Grace Koch.

With only five full days in Australia, my return journey began all too quickly. However, on my way home to England I made a stopover in Singapore which provided a welcome opportunity for a return visit to the National Archives, our conference host in 2000. I met with Mr Pitt Kuan-wah, Director, Irene Lim, Senior Assistant Director responsible for AV holdings and exhibitions, and Mrs Kwek-Chew Kim-gek, to catch up with news and professional developments.


Manuel d'analyse documentaire des documents sonores inédits pour la mise en place de banques de données (A guidebook to documentary analysis of unpublished sound recordings for databanks) by Bénédicte Bonnemason, Véronique Ginouvès, Véronique Pérennou. 2nd edition revised, enlarged and updated. Parthenay ; Paris: FAMDT : AFAS, 2001. 186 p.

The Gutenberg Galaxy shouldn't have the last say. Oral expression too is leaving a deep mark on our Western societies. One should be able to retrieve, analyze and compare oral archives with other documents such as pictures and written texts. A tool specially made for analyzing unpublished phonograms was a necessity. Back in 1994, the Fédération des Associations des Musiques et Danses Traditionnelles (FAMDT) had already published a guidebook to set up databanks of unpublished sound recordings. Now this guidebook has been republished with the help of the Association Française des détenteurs d'Archives Sonores et audiovisuelles (AFAS). The experience of sound archives has been taken into account. The purpose of this guidebook is to provide a practical tool, which respects the specificity of the oral source while following the librarians' rules and formats. A large appendix and concrete examples will be of good help in processing unpublished sound archives in documentary databanks, including specific problems linked to folk literature and traditional musics.

For more information contact: Veronique Ginouves ginouves@MMSH.UNIV-AIX.FR or

Visions in Preston

Rod Hamilton (The British Library National Sound Archive - BLNSA) reports on the conference Visions: Broadcasting archaeologies, histories, impacts, futures which took place in Preston, UK in June.

The conference was concerned almost exclusively with academic studies in radio and television and, apart from Matt Holland from Bournemouth University and John Riley from BUFVC (TRILT) there were no other librarians or archivists in attendance. However, there were some interesting papers on radio. David Hendy from Westminster, is writing a history of BBC Radio 4 and what it can tell us about British society during the 1960s and 1970s (he attempted, wittily, to use Radio 4's coverage of gardening as a metaphor for the station itself which is currently being accused of dumbing down its programme content); Hugh Chignell, from Bournemouth University, talked about their digitisation projects including their work on the BL NSA's Independent Local Radio Programme Sharing Scheme collection; Matt Holland discussed metadata and access to archives and highlighted the Archives Hub; John Riley demonstrated the TRILT database; Prof. Jeffrey Richards from Lancaster talked about Hollywood and American radio 1930-50 and in particular the Lux Radio Theatre, the popularity of particular stars and the films that were recreated for listeners; Philip Rayner from Gloucestershire looked at the BBC Light Programme in the post-war period and notions of radio listening as a secondary activity or 'soundtrack for living'; Deborah Wilson from Lincoln looked at the BBC Overseas Service during World War 2 and the conflict between government and the BBC over presentation of news; Guy Starkey from Sunderland talked about the Israeli pirate radio station the Voice of Peace; and Prof. Andrew Crisell, also from Sunderland, discussed 'Public Broadcasting: past, present and future', looking at the original Reithian vision of 'Something for Everyone' and how this has been affected by different trends through generations.

I had to miss the final presentation, by Prof. Michael Tracey from the University of Colorado, entitled Broadcasting and the future. Fortunately, the organisers are planning to publish the papers.

All in all it was a useful conference to attend and it was generally agreed that radio studies was beginning to flourish and was less in the shadow of television studies.

Sites and Sounds

  • Emile Berliner and the birth of the recording industry is a recent addition to the famed American Memory digital library hosted by the Library of Congress Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division. At first the resource seems limited to just seven items but these are "headline" items each of which provides access to a wealth of related items. For instance, item no.1, cut-away of a Berliner acoustic tile, is linked to dozens of related items including key texts and images connected with acoustical engineering in the United States.

  • A recent CLIR report Digital video archives: managing through metadata by Howard Wactlar and Michael G Christel (Carnegie Mellon University) provides a useful rallying point for those interested in the progress of AV metadata 'standards' such as MPEG 7 and MPEG 21. The authors also describe the Informedia Project that pioneered the use of speech recognition, image processing, and natural language understanding to automatically produce metadata for video libraries and make special mention of the new National Institute of Standards and Technology Text Retrieval Conference (NIST TREC) Video Retrieval Track (, which is investigating content-based retrieval from digital video.

  • Clifford Lynch, Director of the Coalition for Networked Information ( recently published an excellent state of the art piece in the Danish review FirstMonday. Digital collections, digital libraries and the digitization of cultural heritage information is based on his largely extemporized keynote address to the Web-Wise 2002 Conference last April and manages to convey (for this reader anyway, Ed.) a clear-sited view of the field (in particular the crucial difference between a digital "library" and a digital "collection") and provides some stimulating and informed forecasts for our profession.

  • MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) has a well-developed and exemplary digital library including selected masters and doctoral theses. A quick search for "audio" in early July revealed nine theses all of which would repay closer investigation even though the research fields seem at first sight fairly remote from core IASA concerns, e.g. 3D-audio, hiding data in audio files, audio browsing. Also keep an eye on MIT's DSpace a repository for the intellectual output of MIT.

  • If your work relates in any way to web delivery or interfacing, a daily dose of Lawrence Lee's vertical portal Tomalak's Realm comes highly recommended. A current favourite site of web usability guru Jakob Nielsen ( - note the similarity of display layouts) Tomalak's Realm has been providing a "daily source of links to strategic Web design stories" since November 1998. Naturally, the entire backlist of daily links is indexed. Regular subjects covered include e-commerce, intellectual property, consumer electronics and technology.

  • Music to their ears? A flurry of media interest (e.g. UK Guardian,7558,751054,00.html) has greeted the announcement that Shazam is poised to launch a new music identification service (they call it "tagging") that may also be a timely boost for the mobile phone industry. For a small fee (GBP 0.50 per transaction), and fifteen seconds exposure to a sound source (music played over a radio, television, in a restaurant, or in your local store) Shazam will identify the music for you from its reference database of more than 1.5 million items and enable you to then purchase the CD or send a 30-second personalised message to a friend's mobile.

Calendar of events

Date Event Location
August 4 - 9 IAML Annual Conference Berkeley, U.S.
August 18 - 24 68th IFLA Council and General Conference
Libraries for life
Glasgow, U.K.
September 12 13 CCAAA meeting Paris
September 15 - 19 IASA Annual Conference Aarhus, Denmark
September 25 - 27 ASRA annual conference Canberra, Australia
October 5 8 113th AES Convention Los Angeles, U.S.
October 12 - 16 FIAT-IFTA Annual Conference Antalya, Turkey
October 25 28 Society of Ethnomusicology Annual Meeting Detroit, U.S.
November 19 23 AMIA Conference Boston, U.S.
January June? Joint Technical Symposium Montreal, Canada
March 22 25 114th AES Convention Amsterdam
April 4 5 IASA FIAT meeting on digitisation Helsinki, Finland (YLE)
July 6 - 11 IAML Conference Tallinn, Estonia
August 1 9 69th IFLA Council and General Conference
Access point library
September 23 26 [to be confirmed] IASA annual conference Pretoria, South Africa
November 18 22 AMIA Conference Vancouver, Canada
August 8 - 13 IAML-IASA joint Annual Conference Oslo, Norway
November 9 13 AMIA Conference Minneapolis, U.S.
September (2nd half) IASA Annual Conference Barcelona, Spain

This Information Bulletin was compiled by:

The Editor of IASA, Chris Clark,
The British Library National Sound Archive, 96 Euston Road, London NW1 2DB, UK,
tel. 44 (0)20 7412 7411, fax 44 (0)20 7412 7413,e-mail