Information Bulletin no. 33, April 2000

Paola Bernardi 1930-1999

Paola Bernardi, co-founder of Istituto di Ricerca per il Teatro Musicale (I.R.TE.M.) and long-time IASA member, died in Rome on December 1, 1999. Professor Carlo Marinelli (I.R.T.E.M.) pays tribute to her life and work:

"Paola Bernardi was born in Vicenza on May 21, 1930; she took her degree in piano studies at the Milan Conservatory with Carlo Vidusso in 1946. She subsequently took degrees in choral music and conducting (Rome, 1957), and in harpsichord with Ferruccio Vignanelli (Rome, 1961).

In 1948, at the early age of eighteen, she began teaching music in schools, and continued this activity until 1965, when she obtained a post as harpsichord teacher at the Conservatoire in Bologna. From 1980 until her retirement in 1997 she taught harpsichord at the Music Conservatoire in Rome. In Bologna she also taught musical pedagogy, and was the first to institute, in the Bolognese Conservatory, a course dedicated to musical orientation for primary school teachers. She also taught both of these courses at the Conservatoire in Aquila between 1975 and 1980. She was Professor at the University in Aquila in the academic year 1988-89.

She held national and international master classes, and was a jurist at many harpsichord competitions. She published several works in the field of musical pedagogy for Le Monnier, Ricordi, and De Santis. She performed as a soloist and in chamber groups such as I Solisti di Roma and Gruppo di Ricerca e Sperimentazione Musicale both of which she helped to found, and with whom she toured extensively in Italy, Europe and South America. She made many radio recordings with these groups.

Paola was among the first harpsichordists in Italy to perform early music on period instruments and she was also a distinguished performer of 20th-century harpsichord music. She recorded for RCA, Discoteca di Stato, and I.R.T.E.M.

In 1972 she founded the Associazione Clavicembalistica Bolognese over which she presided intermittently. After 1985 she originated two projects which proved to be of fundamental importance for the harpsichord in Italy: the National Harpsichord Performance Competition, organized every two years and now at its 8th event, and the editorial series which she directed until the end, and which will soon issue its sixteenth volume.

Her musicological activity comprised critical editions of Italian vocal and instrumental music of the 18th century (concertos by Felici and Martini, quartets by Guglielmi as well as four volumes of songs by Domenico Corri). She also published volumes on the harpsichord transcriptions of operas by Handel and Lully, and collaborated in the critical edition of the recording of G. Paisiello's Re Teodoro in Venezia. She harmonized popular tunes and carried out research on rhythmic education; she wrote essays on vocal music in the 18th century, and on the transcriptions of operas written by Italian composers of the 18th century, as well as by Mozart, Rossini, and Beethoven; these essays will soon be collected and published in one volume.

In 1984 she was one of the founders of I.R.T.E.M. and was a member of both the Central Committee and the Scientific Council of the Institute. She directed research on the dissemination of opera and ballet in non-theatrical contexts; she edited from a musicological viewpoint the recordings produced by I.R.TE.M. together with the Discoteca di Stato.

She was a member of the Board of Advisors for Music of the Ufficio Centrale dei Beni Librari e delle Istituzioni Culturali at the Ministry of Culture.

She was national Vice-Secretary of the Italian musicians union (Sindacato Musicisti Italiani SMI) during Goffredo Petrassi's presidency, and also member of the Board of Administration both at the Teatro Comunale in Bologna and at the Rome Opera Theater.

In the course of her 35-year long career as a harpsichord teacher Paola Bernardi gave rise to a school of performance based on an in-depth, rigorous study of the musical text, with continuous reference to compositional structure and to period treatises concerning the performance practice of early music, while at the same time giving importance to the interpretation of 20th century music played on modern harpsichords. She had many students, among whom are some of the best performers and teachers of the Italian school of harpsichordists."

IASA Treasurer

Pekka Gronow, IASA's recently elected Treasurer, unexpectedly had to undergo heart surgery earlier this year. He has been advised by his doctors to reduce his professional commitments for the time being and has therefore felt obliged to resign as a IASA Board member. On behalf of the IASA membership, the Executive Board wishes Pekka a speedy recovery.

According to the Rules of the Association, in such circumstances the Executive Board is empowered to appoint a replacement Board member. The Board is therefore delighted to be able to announce the appointment of Anke Leenings as of April this year. Here are her contact details:

Anke Leenings
Deutsches Rundfunkarchiv
Bertramstrasse 8,
60 320 Frankfurt, Germany
Fax 49 69 15687 100

New IASA members

Phonogrammarchiv der Universität Zürich
Freiestrasse 36, CH-8032 Zurich, Switzerland
Collection of Swiss nearly 800 dialect recordings made since 1909. Aims to cover dialects and socio-lects of the four national languages: German, French, Italian, Rhaeto-Romance.

Department of Folk Tradition
University of Tampere, P.O. Box 607, 33101 Tampere, Finland
Collection of Finnish folklore and popular music.

Traditional Music Archive (TRAMA)
Institute of African and Asian Studies, University of Khartoum
P.O. Box 321, Khartoum, Sudan
Audiovisual documentation, preservation and research archive of Sudanese folklore and culture.
Contact: Ali al Daw, Assistant Director

Apologies to William Moran, whose address has been incorrectly listed in the Directory and on IASA mailing lists for at least four years. The fact that he resides in La Canada, California and not in the country of Canada has now been rectified.

IASA SEAPAVAA in Singapore

There are a few places left is still time to book your place at this year's IASA conference, to be held jointly with SEAPAVAA in Singapore, July 3-7. All members will by now have received their invitation together with registration forms. If this is not the case, then please contact IASA Secretary General Albrecht Haefner (fax 49 7221 929 2094, e-mail albrecht.haefner@swr-online-de).

The Conference organisers have agreed to the following changes with regard to cancellations:

1. Cancellations before 15 May 2000 : replacement of payments without deduction
2. Cancellations before 15 June 2000 : replacement of payments with a deduction of 10%
3. Cancellations after 15 June : no replacement of payments

The call for papers is still open (but only just). The programme organisers are keen to consider presentations on the following topics: acquisitions; obsolescence; selection; access. If there are any current programmes of work relating to these topics in your institution which you feel would contribute usefully to the overall theme "A future for the past" or if there are any developments in your geographical area which impact on these topics, please contact John Spence urgently at Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Radio Archives, G.P.O. 9994, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia. Fax 011 61 2 9333 2525, e-mail

JTS in Paris

Alan Ward, Manager of Archive Services at The British Library National Sound Archive has sent in this report on the Joint Technical Symposium (JTS) held last January in Paris.

"The JTS was very worth while attending. I found it most valuable for the ideas on preservation and digitisation strategy, which it confirmed or stimulated, rather than the details of this or that technique. The main programme presentations were generally well staged and chaired. The auditorium was well appointed (though refreshment arrangements took a while to get into gear) and the PowerPoint presentations and translation service all worked. However the "posters" in the lobby, though a good idea, were amateurishly presented and much too cramped for space (and few related to sound recordings), and (I think) only one of the few trade displays was concerned with audio.

There were two sessions of specific interest to sound archives. Papers 1.5-1.9 were about magnetic tape and CD-R longevity: techniques for measuring it (tape) and the results of artificial ageing studies (CD-R). Some useful overall points were (my terminology may be inaccurate in places):

  • On digital recordings significant analogue audio loss is measurable before block error rate increases show up on measuring devices.

  • Measuring block error rates does not necessarily detect all aspects of signal deterioration.

  • However, block error rate increases usually mirror other forms of digital loss and can therefore still be used as a good general-purpose guide.

  • In tests, R-DAT stands up rather better than CD-R in the long term. For this reason among others, many European broadcast archives use it in preference to CD-R.

  • The main drawback of R-DAT is seen not so much as its fragility and reliance on an unstable metal-particle emulsion (the usual UK worries), but its exclusively professional status. There is no consumer market and hence no product development. Manufacturers may soon abandon it. This does not of course apply to CD-R.

  • Of the CD-R makes and types tested by several people, a consensus generally rated Kodak as the best.

  • Clearly CD-R is a delicate medium and even the best of them can be badly affected by poor storage conditions. Monitoring condition and recording integrity is essential, and appears to be widely practised in many countries already. There is clearly potential for collaboration between AV repositories in testing media.

A second group of presentations (papers 3.3-3.11) were more diverse but covered several aspects of the structure of mass storage systems. Points, which struck me, were:

  • Currently there is a tension between the need for consistent standards for recordings and metadata, and the perceived need for immediate change and progress towards digital storage. It was clear from several presentations that much diversity and potential confusion and incompatibility has already been created in the building of mass storage systems, some based on standards inherited from existing systems created for other purposes, some newly created. Caution seemed advisable, especially since most common analogue media have plenty of shelf life left in them (as Dietrich Schüller and others keep pointing out).

  • The symposium made it clear that recordings and related metadata, including content descriptions, will be inextricably linked as part of one and the same system. The management of preservation and cataloguing activity in large archives needs to converge and probably merge.

  • The long-term survival of metadata is almost as important as the survival of digitised audio. The diversity and dubious longevity of metadata standards dwarf the problems of audio digitisation standards into comparative insignificance.

Jim Lindner rounded off the conference with a humorous but perceptive analysis of the present confused situation. He poured scorn on the many over-complex, ill-planned systems currently envisaged which will actually do more to hasten the loss of the mountains of data to be stored than doing nothing at all. (Archivists in the digital age seem to have forgotten that their main job is selection, as before). Conversely perhaps, he displayed statistics to show that every year about twice as much data can be stored for the same price as the previous year, so that theoretical affordable storage capacity will be massively greater than at present in only two or three years. The lesson: digital audio compression for archives is totally pointless. His response to the current half-baked notion of permanent "deep storage" of digital data was to suggest that the obvious problems looming with such gigantic systems could be avoided if data were kept permanently in circulation, using networked redundant computer capacity controlled by daemons. Confidentiality would be protected by encryption and splitting into separate data streams. Circulation would be maintained by terrestrial and extra-terrestrial delay lines e.g. sending data streams to extra-terrestrial satellites and back. It all made perfect sense to me but some of the delegates did not find it at all amusing."

ARSC in Chapel Hill

This year's ARSC annual conference takes place 31 May to 3 June in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. The programme will include discussion and playback by Tim Fabrizio and George Paul of “what might be the oldest surviving recordings in the world from two machines made by Augustus Stroh in 1878 and 1879”. It also includes a presentation by Russian discographer Valari Safonshkin on early Russian romance and gypsy recordings.

ARSC is also offering this year a pre-conference workshop given by experts from the Library of Congress and New York Public Library on “Basic care and management of sound recordings”. This will also include number one hot topic of the moment, copyright.

IASA President, Crispin Jewitt, will be attending part of the conference to present plans and ideas for the joint IASA-ARSC conference to be held in London in September 2001.

Registration for ARSC 2000 (US $ 90) is available at or by mail at Executive Director, PO Box 543, Annapolis, MD 21404-0543

Preservation 2000: call for papers

This is the first call for papers for Preservation 2000: an International Conference on the Preservation and Long Term Accessibility of Digital Materials to be held 7-8thDecember 2000 York, England. The Research Libraries Group and the Cedars project will also be organising a workshop on preservation metadata for the 6th December to be linked to the conference.

"As we enter the new millennium, many organisations and individuals share concerns about our ability to bring with us the vast array of digital materials accumulated in libraries, archives, museums and other cultural and heritage organisations. The Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL) in the UK, through the Cedars project, funded through the JISC eLib programme, has been developing strategic, methodological and practical guidance for libraries and archives in best practice for digital preservation. Over the past 2 years, Cedars has been actively promoting awareness about the importance of digital preservation both amongst university libraries and archives and amongst the data creating and data supplying communities upon which they depend.

Preservation 2000 promises to bring together experts and enthusiasts from a variety of disciplines and organisations to discuss and debate recent advances in this critical area. This state of the art conference will make the most of both the interdisciplinary and international dimensions which are key to facing the challenges imposed by long term access to digital objects.

The aim of the conference is to facilitate meaningful dialogue between the wide array of organisations and individuals currently working with digital archives and preservation. The main goal for the conference is to share, disseminate and discuss current key issues concerning the preservation of digital materials.

The conference programme will focus on three main strands:

  • Content and selection issues for long term preservation

  • Models for digital archives including technical and organisational issues related to access and management

  • Economic and Cost Modelling for digital preservation

We invite submissions in all areas of digital archiving and preservation, including (but not limited to) the following:

  • Exemplars for the establishment of digital archives systems and services

  • Management practices commonly required by libraries and archives in addressing the longevity of digital collections

  • Business models for digital archives (e.g. collaborative or federated repositories)

  • Frameworks for the development of digital collection management policies including selection or materials

  • Intellectual property rights: issues for digital preservation

  • Security, authentication and authenticity in digital archives

  • Electronic publishing and digital archives

Prospective authors are asked to submit an abstract of no more than 500 words describing their paper by no later than 30 May. Notification of acceptance will be made by 30 July. A provisional Programme will be available by 30 August. Authors are encouraged to submit papers electronically and, in particular, in postscript (or PDF) format.

Abstracts should be submitted by post or email to:

Kelly Russell, Cedars Project Manager, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT. England, UK
Phone: (+44) (0) 113 233 6386 Fax:(+44) (0) 113 2335539,

Digital Reality in Boston

Digital Reality II: Preserving Our Electronic Heritage is the title of a conference co-sponsored by the NELINET Preservation Advisory Committee, the John F. Kennedy Library, and the Northeast Document Conservation Center which will take place at the John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts on Monday, June 5, 2000.

The conference poses the questions: how can libraries, archives, and organizations cope with the ever-increasing amount of digital material? Will future generations be able to read our CD-ROMs and computer files?

Speakers include Tim Berners-Lee, MIT, the inventor of the World Wide Web, Jeff Rothenberg, Rand Corporation, promoter of emulation as a digital preservation strategy, Fynnette Eaton, Smithsonian Institution, promoter of migration as a digital preservation strategy, Paul Conway, Yale University, author of articles on digital preservation and digital imaging, Walt Crawford, Research Libraries Group, an information architect and author of 14 books and over 180 articles on libraries, technology, publishing and personal computing, and Jan Merrill-Oldham, Harvard, consultant and author in preservation planning, management, and development.

Full programme and registration information is posted on the NELINET web site,

For more information contact Robert Cunningham at NELINET, or 1-800-NELINET.

Planning for preservation in Bergen

Inger Johanne Christiansen announces an important conference on preservation which takes place in Bergen, May 4th-5th.

"In 1997 the publication Plan for the Preservation of Norwegian Sound Recordings resulted from an excellent research project which started in 1993 on 100 years of Norwegian sound recordings and how to safeguard them. In 1994 the Norwegian Council for Cultural Affairs gave financial support to the project and the second Conference of Norwegian Sound Archives was held in Oslo to discuss further progress and the last conference took place at the National Library, Rana Division in October 1998, (summaries in Norwegian).

Our next conference will take place in Bergen, on of this year's European Cultural Cities, at the beginning of May this year. We are welcoming all librarians, archivists, private collectors and people from the recording industry with interest in audiovisual recordings.

The main topics will be: Sound and pictures on the Internet (speaker, Knut Magne Risvik from Fast Search & Transfer); lawyer Jon Wessel Aas, from The Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation will give us an important link between the technical and juridical aspects of copyright laws; a presentation on ISRC will be given by Tom Hovde, Gramo (Joint Collecting Society for Musicians, Performing Artists and Phonogram Producers), the Norwegian association responsible for administrating the codes; Erik Brataas from Phonofile will demonstrate their new database on the Internet containing CD recordings from Norwegian Record companies. This is a database containing the whole sound track in RealAudio and MP3 format, 1300 items altogether, and with a searchable catalogue with possibilities for downloading the whole CD for listening and storing. This project was originally established as an archive for the Norwegian TV2 Company, but this database is of interest for all of us.

Another main presentation is How to establish a Norwegian Archive of popular music and rock. We are looking to Sweden, and Olle Johansson from Arkivet för ljud och bild in Stockholm will tell us how to establish and organise such an archive. In addition we have invited Jan Sneum, Danmarks Radio P3 and Trond Bjørknes, The Norwegian Rock Association, to discuss how to create and organise an institution to take better care of Norwegian popular music and rock.

Further details of the programme (in Norwegian) are at

New Musical Entrepreneurs - the impact of new technologies on the UK music industry

Alan Ward, The British Library National Sound Archive, reports:

"The above is the title of a report by Paul Brindley of the Institute for Public Policy Research, "Britain's leading centre-left think tank", and of the seminar held on 2nd March to launch the report. The report and meeting were both about the impact of the internet on the record industry. Although current UK copyright law can be interpreted as applying to distribution via the internet, nobody has devised a foolproof system to prevent unauthorised internet distribution of copyright music without payment to rights holders. The response of the UK record industry has been dilatory and unimaginative; developments have been effected by new players while the established companies have been worrying about the threat to their revenues and traditional business from a distribution system founded on the idea of unrestricted access. The report makes a series of recommendations, encouraging the industry to engage with e-commerce and provide quality products and services, which will gain the respect of consumers.

Several speakers supported this general theme, and, as usual on these occasions, the need for consumers to pay a fair price for everything in order to prevent the decline of musical creativity and innovation was recited. Underlying anxieties were illustrated when the discussion turned to the need to educate young people to respect copyright law and banish all thoughts of using or distributing copyright music without payment, at which point the smell of humbug began to permeate the already rather heavy atmosphere. (On a bright March day the meeting was held in the Ministry of Sound's subterranean and dimly lit dance hall.)

If the New Musical Entrepreneurs scenario gains ground, sound archives and libraries which collect the national output of published phonograms have at least as much to worry about as the old music business. In the UK for example, no forms of on-line publication are covered by statutory deposit, and means of identifying and capturing output seem as elusive as foolproof royalty collection. Much is already being created and distributed without a permanent record; if larger interests begin to operate exclusively via the internet, the proportion of lost material will increase. There must also be concerns about technical quality of downloads from internet distribution."

Copies of the report can be obtained from Central Books, 99 Wallis Road, London E9 5LN. Tel 020 8986 5488. email

DRM ascendant

The long-expected response from established corporate and legal interests to the apparent free-for-all business of recorded music on the Internet is now gaining momentum in the guise of digital rights management (better known as DRM). A recent report by Michael Gebb in Billboard (February 19th 2000: "Labels jump on digital rights bandwagon") covered the main initiatives.

For the moment free use of unencrypted MP3 formats is likely to remain a fact of life because the user community is so firmly established, but now that labels are adopting SDMI (Secure Digital Music Initiative) and similar secure digital formats the big question is how to distribute the revenue when consumers actually start paying for downloading from the Internet.

"The new DRM field breaks down into three elements: distribution, management and security protection, and fulfilment", wrote Gebb. Existing distributors, who already wield power in the world of physical products, could simply add DRM to their existing range of products and services. They are expected to engage with DRM in droves over the coming months. But like everything else in the digital environment, it is not just a case of plugging in existing ways of doing things and expecting a faster ride. As recently as last year, record labels were simply looking at promoting product on the Internet without suffering from the effects of illegal exploitation. The aim now is to harness the best authoring tools to the user interface while ensuring that transactions are governed by reliable and robust technology: protecting copyrights is even more of a necessity. This will almost certainly mean that labels and distributors sub-contract to a DRM company, a number of which are already available. For instance, Bertelsmann has launched its own digital rights management company, Digital World Services.

Electronic distribution introduces many other costs for record labels, such as "digital watermarking, compression, mastering, encoding, bandwidth, server space, clearinghouse costs, technology licensing costs, technical support, and customer service". Some of these costs will decrease as revenues from
e-distribution increase and the benefits of well-produced software are utilised.

One of the leading companies in DRM software provision is InterTrust Technology Corp. InterTrust's software "allows labels or artists to set usage rules for each music product. In one case, a user might be allowed to make one copy. In another case, the user might be allowed to make five. In a different case, it might be a one-time usage fee. In each example, rights fees would be protected". (IASA members can expect to hear more about the InterTrust solution at the Singapore Conference in July Ed).

Nobody is expecting DRM to eradicate piracy: in fact e-commerce is more likely to increase the opportunities for hackers and pirates. But what does seem likely is that the pattern of recorded music provision will change from large shipments of universal hits to highly individualised packages of customised product, for example the songs of just one particular singer or composer. If this happens then there is not much scope for piracy.

Venezuelan gratitude

Following the news in the last Information Bulletin about the damage caused by flooding in Venezuela, the IASA news desk has received the following response from the Director of the Central University in Caracas thanking IASA for its gesture of support and seeking a way to ensure lasting contact in the future. Fortunately the floods caused no damage to Venezuelan archives.

"Agradecemos mucho su mensaje de apoyo y solidaridad para con Venezuela y nuestra institucion. Afortunadamente la zona donde se encuentra nuestra sede no tuvo mayores problemas por las lluvias. Nuestros archivos permanecen intactos... De parte nuestra institucion, reciba usted los mas cordiales saludos y nuestra total disposicion a mantener un contacto permanente. Gustavo Colmenares, Gerente."

British Library Appoints New Chief Executive

Lynne Brindley has been appointed as the new Chief Executive of the British Library. She will be the first Chief Executive of the Library who is also a professional librarian. Lynne Brindley is currently Pro-Vice-Chancellor and University Librarian at the University of Leeds where she has been since 1997. Brindley will take over from Brian Lang at the British Library on 1 July 2000. In a statement to the UK press at the time of her appointment she said that one of her aims would be "to reach out to new publics and to put digital library developments centre stage."

Sites and sounds

  • CoOL, a project of the Preservation Department of Stanford University Libraries, is a full text library of conservation information, covering a wide spectrum of topics of interest to those involved with the conservation of library, archives and museum materials.
    It includes a number of articles by Jim Lindner (who spoke controversially at the recent Joint Technical Symposium) on tape preservation.

  • Kodak: permanence, handling and caring of CDs, recommended by the UK National Preservation Office:

  • FMD-ROM. See the article Is DVD already dead? at Roman">

  • Dempsey's view. Although not specifically about audiovisual media, the article by Lorcan Dempsey Scientific, Industrial, and Cultural Heritage: a shared approach is an excellent overview of the "research framework for libraries, archives and museums as they move into a shared network space". Originally prepared for the European Commission's Information Society Directorate General in the context of Fifth Framework it has also been published in the online journal Ariadne

  • Holyland Records' Chants from the Holy Land is a series of CD's featuring the depth and breadth of Christian liturgical music from the Holy Land. It consists of 40 CDs recorded live at churches and monasteries throughout the land of the Bible in the very places where the events of the Bible occurred. To review the series go to: or - Norwegian Jazz Discography (1905 1998) available on the Web. The National Library of Norway in Cupertino with the Norwegian Jazz Archives present the printed discography by Johs Bergh on the Internet. This is the first time a complete Norwegian jazz discography has been published. It is available at Contact: Trond Valberg, National Library of Norway, Rana Division

  • British newsreel database. The British Universities Film & Video Council (BUFVC) has now published its database of British newsreels as a CD-ROM and online. Between 1910 and 1979 the newsreels, released twice a week in British cinemas, gave millions their picture of national and world events. Such fondly remembered names as Pathe News, Gaumont British News and British Movietone News were seen in every cinema, and have now preserved an invaluable record of life and news in the twentieth century. The database has now been published as a website at, with free access to all addresses and BUFVC members. It is also being sold as a cross-platform (PC or Apple Mac) CD-ROM, price £95.00 (including postage and packaging) but with one copy free to BUFVC member representatives, with a discount price of £65.00 for additional copies. For more details, visit or contact the BUFVC at

IASA Directory 2000

The new IASA Directory is now available and will be sent to all members. Please remember to notify the Editor of any changes to the details recorded in the Directory as this is now used to generate the mailing lists on which the Board's communications with the membership depend.

Calendar of events

Date Event Location
April 13 - 15 ASRA Annual Conference "Sound of Federation" Melbourne
May 22 24 IEEE Advances in Digital Libraries Library of Congress, Washington DC
May 31 - June 4 ARSC Conference University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
June 3 - 10 56th FIAF Annual Conference London (National Film Theatre)
July 3 - 7 IASA/SEAPAVAA Annual Conference
"A future for the past"
August 6 - 11 IAML Annual Conference Edinburgh
August 13 - 18 66th IFLA Council and General Conference Jerusalem
September 12 - 18 Berlin Phonogrammarchiv Centenary Berlin
September 20 - 24 IAML-Gruppe Bundesrepublik Deutschland/IASA-Ländergruppe Deutschland/Deutschschweiz Leipzig
September 21 - 26 ICA 14th International Congress Seville
September 22 - 25 AES 109th Convention Los Angeles
October FIAT Annual World Conference Vienna
November FIAF Executive Committee New York
December 7 - 8 Preservation 2000: An International Conference on Preservation and Long-Term Accessibility of Digital Materials York, UK
July 8 - 14 IAML Annual Conference Périgueux, France
August 16 -25 67th IFLA Council and General Conference Boston, U.S.
September 23 - 26 IASA/ARSC Annual Conference London
August 4 - 9 IAML Annual Conference Berkeley, U.S.
  68th IFLA Council and General Conference Glasgow, U.K.
September IASA Annual Conference Aarhus, Denmark

This Information Bulletin was compiled by:

The Editor of IASA, Chris Clark,
The British Library National Sound Archive, 96 Euston Road, London NW1 2DB, UK,
tel. 44 (0)20 7412 7411, fax 44 (0)20 7412 7413, e-mail

Printed in Budapest, Hungary